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Adjustable Speed Pumping Applications for Reduced Energy Consumption
Vertical Turbine Pumps Pump Parts - Materials & Design Mine pumps & processes Reducing Energy Consumption

Adjustable Speed Pumping Applications for Reduced Energy Consumption

When exploring and learning about pumping systems, I was amazed at the information available online today in 2021.  For a non-engineer, there are numerous sites that provide incredibly easy to read and understand information.  The U.S. department of energy has done an excellent job with their tear sheets.  I’ve provided the information that they teach, as it’s an incredibly reliable resource:

Most pumps operating today were selected to meet a maximum system demand, or potential future demands. This means that most pumps are oversized, rarely operating at their full design capacity. In addition, pumps are often installed in systems with multiple operating points that coincide with process requirements.  A throttling valve is usually employed when the process flow requirement is less than the flow at the pumping system’s natural operating point. 

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How to Conduct an In-Plant Pumping System Survey to Reduce Energy Consumption?
Mine pumps & processes Reducing Energy Consumption

How to Conduct an In-Plant Pumping System Survey to Reduce Energy Consumption?

In the United States, more than 2.4 million pumps, which consume more than 142 billion kWh annually, are used in industrial manufacturing processes. At an electricity cost of 5 cents per kWh, energy used for fluids transport costs more than $7.1 billion per year. Even one pump can consume substantial energy. A continuously operated centrifugal pump driven by a fully loaded 100-horsepower motor requires 726,000 kWh per year. This costs more than $36,000, assuming average electricity costs of 5 cents per kWh. Even a 10% reduction in operating costs saves $3,600 per year. Table 1 summarizes the electrical costs of operating this pump.

 

Table 1

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Control Strategies for Centrifugal Pumps with Variable Flow Rate Requirements for Reduced Energy Consumption?
Mine pumps & processes Reducing Energy Consumption Centrifugal Pumps

Control Strategies for Centrifugal Pumps with Variable Flow Rate Requirements for Reduced Energy Consumption?

In pumping applications with variable flow rate requirements, adjustable speed drives (ASDs) are an efficient control alternative to throttling or bypass methods. ASDs save energy by varying the pump’s rotational speed. In centrifugal pumping applications with no static lift, power requirements vary, as the cube of the pump speed and small decreases in speed or flow rate can significantly reduce energy use. For example, reducing the speed (flow rate) by 20% can lower input power requirements by approximately 50%. Due to drive inefficiencies, however, ASDs do not save energy in applications that operate close to fully loaded most of the time. For example, ASDs are seldom cost-effective in fluid transfer pumping systems with on/off control when static lift is a significant portion of the total head. In moving a fixed volume of fluid, increases in operating hours can offset the power savings res

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Energy Savings Opportunities in Control Valves, Reduced Energy Consumption
Mine pumps & processes Reducing Energy Consumption Energy Saving

Energy Savings Opportunities in Control Valves, Reduced Energy Consumption

Pumping system control valve inefficiencies in plant processes offer opportunities for energy savings and reduced maintenance costs. Valves that consume a large fraction of the total pressure drop for the system or are excessively throttled can be opportunities for energy savings. Pressure drops or head losses in liquid pumping systems increase the energy requirements of these systems. Pressure drops are caused by resistance or friction in piping and in bends, elbows, or joints, as well as by throttling across the control valves. The power required to overcome a pressure drop is proportional to both the fluid flow rate (given in gallons per minute [gpm]) and the magnitude of the pressure drop (expressed in feet of head).

For example, for fluid with a specific gravity of 1, a pressure drop of one pound per square inch (psi) is equal to a head loss of 2.308 feet.


Fluid horsepower = flow rate (gpm) x head loss (ft) x fluid specific gravity / 3,960 (where 3,960 is a conversion

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How To Maintain Pumping Systems Effectively for Reduced Energy Consumption?
Mine pumps & processes Reducing Energy Consumption Energy Saving

How To Maintain Pumping Systems Effectively for Reduced Energy Consumption?

Effective pump maintenance allows industrial plants to keep pumps operating well, to detect problems in time to schedule repairs, and to avoid early pump failures. Regular maintenance also reveals deteriorations in efficiency and capacity, which can occur long before a pump fails. Wear ring and rotor erosions, for example, can be costly problems that reduce wire-to-water efficiency by 10% or more. 

The amount of attention given to maintenance depends on how important a system is to a plant’s operations. Downtime can be expensive when it affects critical processes. Most maintenance activities can be classified as either preventive or predictive. Preventive maintenance addresses routine system needs such as lubrication, periodic adjustments, and removal of contaminants. Predictive maintenance focuses on tests and inspections that detect deteriorating conditions.

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